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Educated at Rugby and Mason College, Birmingham. Married Anne Vere Cole.

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Lord Mayor of Birmingham — Director-General of National Service — MP for Birmingham Ladywood — 29, Edgbaston — Died 9 November Chamberlain remains one of the most controversial of modern prime ministers. He dominated his cabinet, yet was prime minister for only three years; he had overwhelming support from his party, yet fell from office due to a backbench revolt. He is the only twentieth-century premier who never led his followers in a general election.

His reputation remained low for most of the post-war era, but in recent years admiration for his vigour and clarity of vision have encouraged attempts at rehabilitation. The first essential point about Chamberlain is his parentage. Neville was not expected to go into politics; he did not attend university, but was looked to as guardian of the family business interests.

The formative experience of his early life was seven years of lonely isolation from to on a remote island in the Bahamas overseeing a speculative scheme of his father to grow sisal. Despite his stubborn efforts, the venture was a failure. Neville held himself responsible, and returned home physically and mentally toughened but with wounded pride. He was profoundly affected by the death in action of his younger cousin and closest friend, Norman Chamberlain, while a bruising encounter with Lloyd George resulted in lasting personal antagonism.

In December Chamberlain was appointed to the new post of DirectorGeneral of National Service, overseeing the vital resource of manpower. However, his powers and responsibilities were undefined, blog proti stárnutí pleti lacked resources and assistance, and had no seat in parliament from which to defend himself.

Lloyd George considered him to be too rigid and stubborn, lost patience, and effectively forced his resignation after only seven months in office. Chamberlain retired to Birmingham, embittered at this further personal failure. In he entered the Commons as a supporter of the Lloyd George coalition, but with no affection for its leader.

Chamberlain was 49 years old, but the combination of his ability, his family connections and the unexpected turn of events were to lead to rapid advancement. Neville did not play a major part in the revolt, although he shared the anti-coalition view. The new Conservative ministry under Bonar Law was in need of capable administrators, and so Neville toits Verts suisse anti aging appointed first to junior ministerial posts before entering the cabinet in March as Minister of Health.

His first spell there was extremely brief, for only a few weeks later the new leader called the general election of which resulted in defeat and the installation in January of the first Labour government. In — 4 Neville acted as a bridge with Austen, and helped to heal the dangerous rift which the fall of the coalition had created in the Conservative leadership. He established his reputation by coming into office with an ambitious legislative programme already mapped out, and further impressed by carrying nearly all of his measures by the end of the parliament.

However, his proposals for local government, poor law and factory reform later in the parliament aroused vocal opposition.

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The derating policy which he devised jointly with Churchill as the platform for the election proved to be a damp squib. By the end of the s Chamberlain had established a formidable reputation, but more as a bureaucrat than a politician. His poor relations with the Labour opposition were shaped in this period.

Chamberlain had a low opinion of the quality of their arguments, which his command of his subjects enabled him easily to demolish in debate. He disliked the emotionalism and impracticality of the outbursts from the Labour backbenches which were a common feature of the — 9 parliament.

Chamberlain had no empathy for the experience of working-class life, and had to be warned by Baldwin of the dangers of showing his contempt so openly. Although a sincere toits Verts suisse anti aging reformer who was willing to tackle vested interests within his own party, he became a detested figure on the left long before he became prime minister.

With typical pragmatism, he focused its work on immediate planning rather than long-term investigation and debate. He made the department his personal fiefdom and remained its head until his death. He also played a major part in resolving the crisis within the party over economic policy.

In October his forcefulness and tactical grasp propelled Baldwin into seizing a vital chance to defeat his critics, and in March Chamberlain was responsible for ending the remaining strife by concluding a deal with the press baron Lord Beaverbrook.

This caused a short period of tension between Chamberlain toits Verts suisse anti aging Baldwin, but within the month their effective working relationship had been restored.

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In August Chamberlain represented his party during key stages of the meetings which shaped the fall of the Labour government and its replacement by an all-party National ministry, and it has been suggested that he did more than any other figure to bring this about. Chamberlain was now the recognized heir apparent who would succeed Baldwin, although not until the latter chose to depart. After the election Chamberlain was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.

His first task as Chancellor was to oversee the introduction of protective duties and imperial preference. Although lacking a deep understanding of economics, he had the confidence of a practical background in business.

He moved with the economic orthodoxy of the day, which emphasized the need for balanced budgets and for reducing the tax burden during a depression. In fact, the domestic policy of the National government was more pragmatic and interventionist than has often been allowed.

By economic prospects were improving and Chamberlain scored a particular success with his budget, using the surplus to outflank the Labour party by restoring the unemployment benefit cuts in full. Developing tensions in international affairs exposed weaknesses in British defence provision, especially against air attack, and from the government wrestled with the problems of financing increasingly larger programmes of rearmament. With his customary logic and clarity of vision, Chamberlain was toits Verts suisse anti aging černá pokožka proti stárnutí the first to make this connection, and so became the most determined to avoid the horrors of needless conflict.

As Baldwin passed through a period of lethargy and collapse inChamberlain began to assume the mantle of acting prime minister and this gave his personal initiatives all the more force. However, his final weeks as Chancellor saw a rare reversal when his proposed National Defence Contribution, a tax on business profits to pay for rearmament, had to toits Verts suisse anti aging withdrawn due to heavy opposition.

Chamberlain finally succeeded Baldwin on 28 May He was 68 years old, but although he had been the workhorse of the government since he was seen as being the most vigorous figure in it. Far from buckling under the immense strains of this period, he was tireless and throve on responsibility. He was an effective debater but not an inspirational orator, being plain, sober, direct and factual. His financial position and the support of his family gave him a secure foundation which was modestly middle class in style.

He enjoyed music, but his principal relaxation was the solitary pursuit of fly-fishing. In personal contacts Chamberlain was shy and awkward, and many considered him to be cold, narrow and humourless.

He was convinced of his ability to solve the manuální ochrana proti stárnutí facing Britain, especially in Sérum proti stárnutí absolutní péče, and of the rightness of his policy.

He employed unofficial channels and intermediaries to speed his diplomacy, and relied upon the senior domestic civil servant Sir Horace Wilson for advice which was more supportive than that of the Foreign Office. He dominated his cabinet, chairing all the important committees, and closely monitored the work of toits Verts suisse anti aging department.

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Decision-making was centralized, and in the Chamberlain cabinet collective responsibility ran in only one direction— upwards. The prime minister was not dictatorial in toits Verts suisse anti aging, but his views and leadership were authoritative, and his colleagues acquiesced even when they had doubts.

Below this, party discipline was maintained by the powerful and autocratic chief whip, David Margesson, while the director of the Conservative Research Department, Joseph Ball, massaged a favourable press and manoeuvred against the handful of dissident MPs. Any British government would have been constrained by the economic and political climate of the s, but the foreign policy of the Chamberlain government was deliberately chosen.

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He was replaced by Lord Halifax, and from this point the prime minister spoke on foreign policy for the government in the Commons. Appeasement was also an idealistic, even Christian, policy— a magnanimous redress of just grievances, willing to acknowledge the flaws of the Versailles settlement in order to bring lasting peace and harmony between nations.

In an unprecedented and dramatic initiative, aimed largely at Toits Verts suisse anti aging public opinion, he made two flights to southern Germany to negotiate with Hitler face to face.

The plan was toits Verts suisse anti aging his own conception, and these unaccompanied missions underlined his position as the sole author and executor of British policy; they also had a tremendous impact on the British public, deeply anxious over the imminence of another terrible war. Just at the point where conflict seemed unavoidable, Chamberlain flew again to the four-power conference at Munich brokered by Mussolini.

Chamberlain returned to an atmosphere of euphoric relief.

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At this point appeasement was hugely popular, and its critics few and beleaguered. The optimism of Munich soon soured, but Chamberlain pursued his vision more fervently after every setback.

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The critical blow came with the German occupation of Prague in March This demolished the Munich agreement and incorporated into the Reich non-German lands for the first time, indicating that there were no limits to Nazi expansionism.

While at the outset there had been a broad consensus for appeasement, after this it ebbed away. Toits Verts suisse anti aging, he was still determined to find peace by negotiation, and thus postponed too long the necessary but distasteful step of underpinning the guarantees with an agreement with Soviet Russia.

However, his toughness and resilience ensured his determination to carry on, and he regarded himself as indispensable. Churchill and Eden were brought into the cabinet, but Chamberlain considered it small loss when the Labour opposition refused to join him. Chamberlain increasingly appeared to be narrow, unimaginative, inflexible and impervious to criticism.

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His position was affected by the widespread lack of confidence in key members of his cabinet, but he would not remove them.

Cabinet changes in January and April were poorly handled and inadequate, and support began to slip away. This became apparent in the debate of 7— 8 May on the disastrous Norwegian campaign, in which the government suffered a massive drop in its normal majority.

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This was effectively a vote of no confidence in Chamberlain, and it was clear that he would have to step down in favour of a Conservative under whom Labour would serve. Chamberlain was repudiated not because of any rebel intrigue, but as the cumulative result of his own actions.

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The real causes were the failure of his policy, the erosion of his prestige, his stubborn refusal to alter either the policy or the personnel of his ministry, and his alarming complacency. Chamberlain surrendered the premiership in Maybut remained leader of the Conservative party. In toits Verts suisse anti aging of his executive abilities and the support which he still commanded in the House and in the country, he became Lord President of the Council with a seat in the War cabinet.

At first Chamberlain retained a powerful role in the government, but his influence declined with the revolution in public feeling after Dunkirk. The rapid deterioration of his health feuille de boucher suisse anti aging him to resign at the end of September; he died from cancer on 9 November. Studoval na škole v Rugby, později na Mason College v Birminghamu.

Roku se oženil s Anne Vere Coleovou. Zemřel 9. Neville Chamberlain je dodnes jedním z nejkontroverznějších britských premiérů novodobé historie.